Chrysanthemum is considered one of the most popular autumn garden flowers. Chrysanthemum can be planted indoors or outdoors, in an open field such as your home garden.
They grew up in many countries and continents: North America, Asia, China and Europe. You can see this flowering shrub from September to October both in private plantings and in city flower beds.
The seed-growing method can be used to grow both annual varieties and perennials. At the time of flowering, the plant is divided into early, middle and late. It is better to grow early varieties of chrysanthemums from seeds, as the latter may not have time to bloom.
According to the structure of the flower, chrysanthemums are divided into simple and double. If the conditions of care and growth are suitable for the flower, then more than 100 inflorescences can be formed. Depending on the variety, the height of chrysanthemums varies greatly from 30 cm to 1.10 m, the larger the bush the more flowering it will be.
How to Grow Chrysanthemums by Seeds
The procedure for planting by seed is slightly different for annual and perennial chrysanthemums. Keep reading this whole article.
Growing Annual Chrysanthemums from Seeds
- In late spring, planting material can be planted directly into open ground. But first clean the area of weeds. Next, dig a hole with about 20 – 30 cm.
- Pour warm water into each hole, wait until the soil soaks well. Then add 2 to 3 seeds in each hole.
- Cover with soil on top so that shoots appear faster and the soil retains the required amount of moisture better.
- After the shoots grow, moisten the soil.
- Emerging seedlings need fertilization. You can use a diluted liquid fertilizer such as Rainbow or Ideal.
- When the shoots grow to about 10 cm, and there are 3-4 healthy mature leaves, then let the healthiest ones grow and you can get rid of the weak ones. Move some to another place.
Growing Perennial Chrysanthemums from seeds
If you want the bush to start blooming earlier, it is better to use the seedling method. This is how perennial chrysanthemums are most often grown.
Seed and soil preparation
- Soak the planting material first for some time in a solution of potassium permanganate and then dry it. This will save the plant from fungal infections and other diseases.
- For the sowing stage, you will need a container for seedlings, a lid or glass for making a greenhouse, a watering can with a narrow spout, a lamp for additional lighting and the prepared soil mixture.
- Ordinary garden soil is suitable as soil. If the composition is too heavy, it can be mixed with equal parts of peat and river sand. Or another option: 2 parts soil, 1 part humus and 1 part sand.
- However, the soil must be disinfected as these plants are often exposed to various infections and fungi, such as powdery mildew. You can freeze it like some people put the soil in the oven at +110 – 130 degrees or pour boiling water over the ground.
- Put a drainage layer in the container before planting, this will prevent stagnation of excess moisture in the root system. Sometimes you can use small pieces of Styrofoam for the drainage system.
- When you want to plant seeds of small-flowered chrysanthemum varieties, it is enough to place them on the surface of the prepared wet substrate.
- Sprinkle on top with a little sand. You need to wet it with the rain/sprayer method so that the seeds don’t go deep into the soil.
- Put the lid on top of the pot/container you have prepared earlier. So you will maintain the desired temperature and humidity level in such a greenhouse. Seedlings will appear faster.
- Cover the seeds for about 10 days. If planting is done in January or February, there will be little sunlight for the seedlings, so you will need to install lights. Hours of daylight must be at least 10 hours.
- In the room where the seedlings will appear, it is better to maintain the same temperature all the time – 23 – 25 degrees Celsius. This will be enough for chrysanthemums.
- When several mature leaves appear, feed the plant with a complex mineral fertilizer. Organic use is not recommended until the first inflorescences appear.
- When the first shoots sprout, place the container in a well-lit place, gradually removing the shelter for an increasingly longer period of time. This will allow the young plant to get used to normal temperatures without stress.
- When 2 to 4 true mature leaves appear, the seedlings are placed in separate pots or containers. You have to handle roots very carefully.
- Try to arrange the plants so that the distance between them is sufficient for the penetration of air masses and light. Next, treat the soil with a solution of Epin-Extra or Zircon. This will help the seedlings adapt in the shortest possible time, and will also help them develop and grow faster.
- Seedlings can be planted in open ground. If the variety is large-flowered, then the plant should not be left in the first year during the winter months. It is better to plant them separately, in a place where groundwater does not flow too close to the soil surface.
- For small-flowered varieties, planting seedlings is carried out immediately to a permanent place. Dig a hole measuring 30×30 cm. After planting, moisten the soil constantly until the young bushes take root.
- You should be prepared for the fact that chrysanthemums grown in this way often lose their varietal characteristics. Flowers can be of different colors.
The main thing is to continue to water the plant regularly, to maintain the necessary lighting for a sufficient time. Apply fertilizer at least once every 7 days. At first, the seedlings grow rather slowly. But after 4 – 6 weeks, it reaches at least 20 cm in length.
When the last snow has passed, the seedlings can be planted in a permanent place. The prepared area should have plenty of sun, fertile soil and not damp.
Depending on the variety you choose, you can grow chrysanthemums from seed. Plant annuals immediately in open ground, but it is advisable to plant perennials using pre-grown seedlings.
Plant the seeds in January or the first half of February. In this case, flowering will begin earlier. Seeds and soil must be disinfected before planting.
Seedling care is not difficult at all. The main thing is sufficient moisture, light and regular feeding. The soil should not be overcrowded as they do not like waterlog.